The Institute of Directors (IoD) has demanded a fast-track commission be set up after the general election to recommend locations for two additional runways within a year.

The expansion of Heathrow is yet to be passed through parliament, almost five years after the first Airport Commission was established and is not expected to be completed before at least 2025.

The IoD said that the commission had underestimated demand for air travel and said Gatwick would also be full before Heathrow was expanded.

Dan Lewis, senior infrastructure adviser at the Institute of Directors, told the Guardian: “The growth in passenger numbers is far ahead of what the Airports Commission said it would be. This is a fast-moving target.

“Whoever wins the next election, they will face a serious challenge in upgrading the UK’s transport and communications network. The years of dawdling on new airport capacity have left us lagging well behind European competitors. Expanding Heathrow is not enough.”